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Drug terminology

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Drug terminology AdditiveAdditives are substances enabling processing of the active substance ..



01-06-2010 09:51 صباحا
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم



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Drug terminology



Additive
Additives are substances enabling processing of the active substance itself resulting in a medical preparation of a characteristic drug form, while ensuring the required stability and quality of the drug, they may influence, for example, the release of an active substance from the drug form and its absorption, they correct sensual perception, etc. Additives may cause an allergy in certain individuals; the content of additives must be carefully monitored even necessitating a certain type of diet. Additives include stabilizers, dyes and antioxidants.

Adverse effects of drugs
The adverse effects of drugs are represented by any adverse or unwanted consequence of the drug administration; certain adverse effects can be subjectively sensed by the patient, however, others require various medical examinations. Some adverse effects will fade away with time; if there is any serious change in the health condition which might be connected with the drug administration it is necessary to stop using the drug and to consult the physician on what to do next; adverse effects often experienced by patients include headache, nausea, impaired digestion, increased fatigue, reduced concentration, skin symptoms, etc.

Antioxidants
1. additives added in an active substance to protect the latter from degradation by oxygen in the air (anti-oxidation admixtures);

2. substances protecting the body tissues against damage to the body by oxygen radicals; certain vitamins exhibit anti-oxidation effects (C,D, beta-carotene) or trace elements (selenium).





ATC group
Anatomy-therapy-chemical drug classification according to the recommendation of the WHO (The World Health Organization). This is a group of drugs used for the same type of illness.

Batch
Drugs are usually produced in batches; a batch is the specific quantity of drugs produced in a single manufacturing process, i.e. under the same conditions, thus featuring identical properties; each batch of a certain drug is tested with regards to efficacy, cleanliness, etc.; the drug batch number is given on the drug packaging with a numeric code (batch number).

DDD
Daily dose definition – an artificially established administration unit used, for example, for monitoring the consumption of drugs.

Dosing
Dosing means determining the quantity per dose of a substance/substances to achieve its/their optimum efficacy, safety and high-level of comfort for the patient; moreover, for making a drug effective and safe, it is necessary to follow precisely the dosing prescribed by the physician; drug dosing is often unique while depending on the nature and severity of a specific disease, the overall condition and age of the patient; a special modification of dosing is applied for children, elderly patients and patients suffering from hepatic or renal diseases.

Drug active substance
Basic active substance which is the bearer of the drug effects is usually indicated as a sub-heading of the drug trade name; apart from active substances, the drug usually also contains additives processed in the drug form.

Drug administration
Drug application; there are several types of drug administration, such as sublingual where a drug is put under the tongue and left to dissolve, oral (the drug is swallowed), parenteral – most frequently injections (depending on the point of application we differentiate them into, for example, muscular – intramuscular, venous – intravenous, subcutaneous), topical, where drugs are applied on a certain area, while the most frequently used drugs are those affecting the skin (dermal drugs), followed by solutions for ear, nose and eyes, suppositories, vaginal tablets; the type of drug administration depends amongst other things on whether the active substance is required to deliver local or systemic effect; the correct drug administration is important for achieving the required drug effect and that is why sometimes various aids are used for administration, for example, in inhalation of anti-asthmatics.

Drug administration contraindication
This is any circumstance or condition of the patient under which administration of a specific drug is inconvenient, not recommended or impossible; contraindication can be a*bsolute or relative while a*bsolute contraindication is a situation where drug administration is totally inconvenient, as drug administration of such a contraindication can result in a situation threatening the patient’s life; relative contraindication of the drug is a situation where drug administration is not recommended, but if the physician assesses the drug as being advantageous for the patient in terms of his/her health condition and availability of other drugs, the drug can be administered to control a disease; in general, the attending physician must always assess the significance or benefit of a specific drug administration on an individual basis; the majority of drugs feature their contraindications, while frequent contraindication is, for example, represented by known allergy to the active substance or additive and many drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy or lactation; the opposite of indication.










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:. كاتب الموضوع :: moon light :: ، المصدر: Drug terminology .:


Drug terminology

 

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01-06-2010 09:52 صباحا
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Drug allergy
Drug allergy is a hypersensitivity condition of the body against a certain drug manifesting most frequently in various skin rea*ctions, bronchiostenosis and oedema, while the most severe form of allergy is anaphylactic shock, which is an acute life-threatening allergic rea*ction connected with oedema of the respiratory tract. Drugs which may induce an allergic rea*ction contain, for example, certain antibiotics, acetylsalicylic acid or local anaesthetics.
Drug form
Drug form is the complete form of medical preparations in which, except for the prescribed dose of an active substance additives are added thus getting the drug form suitable for its administration while masking its adverse appearance, taste or odour connected with the drug administration, the drug onset of efficacy is postponed, the drug effect is extended, etc. Drug form is represented, for example, by tablets (various types of tablets including vaginal, chewing and others), capsules, injections, ointments, suppositories, solutions and a number of others; a single active substance can be administered in various drug forms. A drug form may have a significant impact on the active substance characteristics. For each drug form to fulfil its role, certain administration rules are required which are included on the leaflet and the patient is informed about them by his or her physician or pharmacist.
Drug registration
Drug registration means permission granted by the relevant state authority (State Institute of Drug Control in the Czech Republic) to use and distribute a certain drug in the Czech Republic; on the basis of the registration proceedings each drug is given a registration number and registration itself is valid for 5 years. Then it must be renewed. The main aim of registration is to ensure that the patients get only safe, effective drugs of high quality.
Drug storage conditions
The correct storage of the drug is important in order to maintain its efficacy and safety; the majority of drugs should be stored at a temperature of up to 25°C, protected against light and humidity. However, certain substances require special storage, for example at a lower temperature, i.e. they should be kept in the refrigerator (for example some hormones, ointments and vaccines); all drugs should be kept out of the reach of children; drugs which are not stored under the recommended conditions might degrade even prior to the expiration date.
Drug using
The effects of drugs may be influenced by a series of external and internal factors, therefore, a successful treatment requires the correct use of drugs. For example it is necessary to follow the recommendations given by the physician or pharmacist on drug administration relating to food intake (fasting means 30 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals) and even having a drink after drug administration should not be underestimated (for the majority of drugs it is recommended to drink water or mild lukewarm tea; the optimum quantity in adults is considered to be 250 ml of drink. With certain drugs it is recommended to use milk as a drink, but on the contrary, with some drugs milk is not suitable at all; you should be careful regarding acid drinks, fruit juices, coffee, dark tea and of course alcohol). In some cases the time of day that the drug is administered can play an important role (some drugs are to be administered in the morning, while others before going to bed). Certain drugs should be used regularly for a certain period of time, some for a person’s whole life, while others are used only when problems occur. When using certain drugs it is advisable to avoid sunshine, etc.
Dye
Dyes are additives used for colour treatment of the drug appearance, followed by differentiation of the similar shaped drugs containing various active substances, and if needed, to differentiate drugs of various concentrations of the same active substance.
Expiration
The drug expiration date indicates until when a drug can be used without risking its efficacy or safety; the expiration date must always be indicated on the drug packaging (usually a month and year); expired drugs must not be administered and they should be returned to the pharmacy to be disposed of; the time from the date of drug production until the expiration date is identified as the drug shelf life usually being 2-5 years, while for IPL it may be several weeks; in special instances even days and hours (for example suspensions with antibiotics or eye drops have a shorter shelf life). The IPL expiration date must always be indicated on the label.
HVLP
Acronym used for medicinal preparations produced in bulk, it means via industrial production.
Indication
Indication is a circumstance, or a set of circumstances signalling the initiation of a certain treatment or diagnostic procedure, for example, drug administration; it is the opposite to contraindication.
Intera*ction
Intera*ction means the mutual effect of drugs and of other substances coming into the organism (food, alcohol, nicotine, etc.); certain drugs or substances mutually increase their effects, while others on the contrary reduce them; the attending physician should always be informed about all drugs (including OTC drugs) which are being or will be administered to the patient; drugs with frequent intera*ctions include, for example, certain anti-coagulants, antacids, anti-epileptics, laxatives and others.
IPL
Acronym used for individually produced drugs; it means the drugs prepared in the pharmacy usually according to a breakdown specified by the physician on the pre**ion.
OTC drug
An OTC drug is available without a medical pre**ion, intended for self-healing; OTC stands for “Over the Counter”. The OTC status of a drug is obtained by the producer for a certain drug form and for a certain indication, should his application for drug registration be positively assessed by the state authorities (SÚKL in the Czech Republic).
Overdosing
Overdosing is a condition resulting from the administration of an excessive drug dose; the leaflet, which must be included with each drug, covers symptoms of overdosing and how to solve the potential consequences.
Pre**ion
Medical pre**ion is an instruction from the physician for the pharmacist to issue, or prepare if necessary, a certain drug for a specific patient; the pre**ion form has several parts including formal matters dealing with the patient and the physician prescribing the drug; the validity of the pre**ion is limited – usually to 7 days, while a pre**ion for antibiotics is only valid for 3 days and a pre**ion issued by an emergency medical service only 1 day.
Prevention
Prevention means to prevent a disease onset.
Stabilizer
A stabilizer is an additive ensuring the stability of a drug, i.e. the capacity of a drug to maintain certain qualitative features at specified limits for a certain period of time and under specified conditions.
State Institute of Drug Control, SÚKL
This institution is controlled by the Ministry of Health whose mission is to ensure that in the Czech Republic only safe, effective and high-level quality drugs are available. The Institute provides surveillance over the properties of drugs and medical devices used in human medicine.
























01-06-2010 09:53 صباحا
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01-06-2010 10:01 صباحا
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